When hypertension is caused by another condition or disease process, it is called secondary hypertension. While the majority of patients have essential hypertension that does not have an identifiable cause, it is important to recognise secondary causes of hypertension table i, as. Differentiation between primary and secondary hypertension in. Most patients with hypertension have no clear etiology and are classified as having primary hypertension.
Other underlying causes of secondary hypertension include. Hypertension is a primary risk factor for cardiovascular disease, including stroke, heart attack, heart failure, and aneurysm. The journal of human pharmacology and drug therapy wiley online library. Blood pressure goal for patients with hypertension. The aasm manual for the scoring of sleep and associated events. Recent studies have demonstrated that primary aldosteronism pa is the most common form of secondary hypertension when determinations of serum aldosterone sa, plasma renin activity pra, and the sapra ratio are used as screening tools and the fludrocortisone, saline infusion, or captopril tests are used to confirm the diagnosis. Essential hypertension does not have an apparent cause.
Primary hypertension has no single known cause but several mechanisms are linked to altered pathways in bp control. Pharmacologic treatment of primary and secondary pulmonary. More than 90% of individuals with hypertension have essential hypertension. Frequent etiological factors for secondary hypertension include renal parenchymal hypertension, primary aldosteronism pa, renovascular. Secondary hypertension is elevated blood pressure that results from an underlying, identifiable, often correctable cause. However, 5% to 10% of these patients may have secondary hypertension, which indicates an. Differential diagnosis and basic principles of treatment. Secondary hypertension refers to arterial hypertension due to an identifiable. Pharmacologic treatment of primary and secondary pulmonary hypertension brown 1991 pharmacotherapy. Secondary hypertension is a type of hypertension with an underlying, potentially correctable cause. Diagnosing secondary hypertension american family physician.
This material may not otherwise be downloaded, copied, printed, stored. Hypertension highlights 2017 health metrics american heart. Keeping blood pressure under control is vital for preserving health. The prevalence of primary and secondary hypertension was determined in a random sample of 7455 swedish men aged 47 to 54 years. Hypertension in all children was defined as sustained bp ele vation above the 95th. A secondary etiology may be suggested by symptoms e. Primary aldosteronism and hypertensive disease hypertension. Genetic factor may play an important role in the development of essential hypertension. Basic and optional laboratory tests for primary hypertension.
Primary hypertension is the most common type of hypertension in children and has no underlying cause. Hypertension is the single biggest contributor to the global burden of disease, and is the most common chronic medical condition presenting to primary care physicians in singapore. This material may not otherwise be downloaded, copied, printed. Seven hundred and ninetyeight men who had blood pressures above 175115 mm hg at preliminary screening were recalled for further blood pressure measurements. The guidelines are intended to benefit physicians at primary, secondary and tertiary level, general practitioners, internists and family medicine specialists, clinical.
Doctors call high blood pressure that is not due to another condition or disease primary or essential hypertension. Early onset hypertension up to 85% of preadolescent children with hypertension have secondary cause most commonly renal parenchymal disease gn, congenital, reflux nephropathy may not present until adolescentyoung adult consider adding urine culture and renal ultrasonography as part of routine. Pdf secondary hypertension occurs in 510% of cases in the patient population with primary hypertension. Pdf the prevalence of primary and secondary hypertension was determined. Causes of secondary hypertension with clinical indications and diagnostic screening tests. High blood pressure, also known as hypertension, is classified as essential primary or secondary. Pulmonary hypertension is considered a contributor to the morbidity and mortality associated with t. No manual editing of the monitor readings was performed. Three hundred and siztyone men were undergoing treatment for hypertension. Resistant hypertension rh is defined as blood pressure above a goal despite adherence to at least 3 optimally dosed antihypertensive medications of different classes. Secondary hypertension in adults pubmed central pmc.1091 57 1411 1398 304 1665 737 525 1054 927 617 39 89 54 533 1382 1472 1204 994 1192 1620 242 1486 25 541 304 182 1624 152 670 444 1045 713 546 1194 1434 952 417 1414 1062 945